Meet a Critter: Palpada pusilla – Syrphid Fly


Syrphid fly
Palpada pusilla pollinating Florida Native Wildlime (Zanthoxylum fagara)

Like bees, pollinating flies are beneficial. The Flower Flies, in the family Syrphidae (Syrphid), play an important outstanding role among all the flower flies. Some species of Syrphid Fly larvae feed on aquatic debris, rotting vegetation, moist or wet wood and bulbs of forbs of living plants, but most are predatory and several Syrphid species are important in controlling aphids or scale. This is nature’s pest control. Syrphid Fly larvae that live in water that contains a significant amount of decaying organic matter are sometimes referred to as “Rat-tailed Maggots” that have a long anal breathing tube allowing for survival. Some might not realize the importance of Diptera (flies) as pollinators and they are largely ignored when compared to other pollinators such as larger bees or butterflies. Syrphid flies do a double duty as pollinators while playing an important role in biological control.

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Palpada pusilla pollinating Florida native Wildlime (Zanthoxylum fagara)


Meet a Critter: Orchard Orb Weaver – Leucauge argyra


Leucage venusta1
Leucauge argyra
We celebrate all arachnids (spiders) in our garden and the Leucauge argyra (Orchard Orb Weaver) is a welcome resident. Leucauge argyra should can easily be confused with the similar looking Leucauge venusta. The abdomen of Leucauge venusta is typically more colorful with silver, yellow, black, green, and bright orange or pink spots. To compare the two, look here. Orchard Orb Weavers construct their webs rather close to the ground on small trees, shrubs or other vegetation. The mass of eggs is laid not far from the web and are usually found on nearby stems or leaves. It is quite entertaining to watch the little spiderlings hatch and scatter to make webs of their very own. Leucage argyra are harmless creatures and rarely do they bite. If they were to bite, their venom is weak and used to paralyze their small insect victims, not you or I. Most spiders do have venom, but very few are a danger to humans. Most spiders either won’t bite at all, hardly ever bite or if they do bite it causes no serious harm.

leucage venusta
Leucauge argyra



A Short Bit on Sunshine Mimosa – Mimosa strigillosa


Sunshine Mimosa – Mimosa strigillosa
Early spring through summer blooms, drought tolerant after establishment, low nutrient requirements, can be mowed and take some light foot traffic, spreads fast and far and creates a thick mat. These are just some of the desirable traits of Florida native Sunshine Mimosa. Sunshine Mimosa is also the larval host plant for the Little Sulphur (Pyrisitia lisa) butterfly. The blooms are pollinated by bees such as the non-native Honey Bee and native Bumble Bees (Bombus species).



Little Sulphur (Pyrisitia lisa) on its larval host Mimosa strigillosa

According to Atlas of Florida Plants Institute for Systematic Botany, Sunshine Mimosa occurs throughout the state north from Walton County and south to Miami-Dade with a possible spread to Timbuktu. This ground cover spreads by rhizomes that produce long tap roots at the nodes. Mimosa strigillosa is a legume (plant family: Fabaceae) and its roots can produce small knots associated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria that in turn, adds nitrogen to the soil. Because this plant spreads fast and forms a thick covering with long taproots that anchor themselves into the soil, it is an excellent choice for erosion control.


Mimiosa strigillosa taproot
The long taproots of Sunshine Mimosa make it exceptionally drought tolerant and also difficult to pull if planted where maintenance is required

Choose wisely when deciding to add Sunshine mimosa to your landscape. It is best used away from flower beds because its many long taproots make it difficult to eradicate and will require frequent maintenance. Trying to pull out a taproot, you might find yourself in a tug-of-war match with a gardener from China on the other end. However, Sunshine Mimosa is not overly competitive when planted with grasses, shrubs and trees that are already established. Plant sunshine mimosa where it can freely spread and cover a large area or use it as a lawn alternative. Keep in mind that Sunshine Mimosa can spread several hundred feet in a short amount of time, possibly in one growing season. 


Sunshine Mimosa has spread throughout this wildflower bed where it is difficult to eradicate and requires maintenance.

Sunshine mimosa will go dormant late fall into spring and can leave the ground looking bare. Even in South Florida, the leaves can become yellow and look sparce. For this reason, we have intermingled native grasses throughout, such as Muhly Grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris) and Elliott’s Lovegrass (Eragrostis elliottii).


Mimosa strigillosa is easily propagated by taking tip cuttings and rooting them in a glass of water or placing them directly into potting soil. It is not difficult to find sections that have begun to set roots at the nodes in early summer or anytime during its growing season. These can also be potted up for some weeks until they are ready to transplant. Propagating by seed takes a little more patience. The seeds will turn an olive to brown color when they are ready to harvest. The seed coating is impervious to water so it should be scarified (rubbed using a nail file or lightly rubbed with sandpaper) to ensure germination.


Sunshine Mimosa is beautiful in the right place. Here it mingles with native grasses and shrubs. 


Sunshine mimosa (Mimosa strigillosa) seeds may be purchased at Florida Wildflowers Growers Cooperative. Locating plants is not difficult and they are usually available at most Florida native plant nurseries. Find a nursery in your area at Florida Association of Native Nurseries.



Critters on the Wild Coffee – Psychotria nervosa


Native plants bring in a wealth of living movement and Wild Coffee (Psychotria nervosa) is no exception. In just a short amount of time, a variety of insects can be observed on the plant. The spring blooms attract an assortment of butterflies, but below are some of the other pollinators and insects that enjoy this plant.

potter wasp
Potter Wasp – Zeta argillaceum

Native to the Neotropics and established in Florida, Zeta argillaceum are common in urban areas where they build their pots (nests) on the sides of buildings such as homes. Each “pot” contains one small entrance hole. A single egg is laid in each cell and the adult wasp fills the cell with paralyzed living food (commonly moth larvae of the genus Geometridae) for the emerging wasp larva to feed on. The nest is only used one time by Zeta argillaceum, but is often reused by other potter wasps such as Pachodynerus species.


orchid bee
Dilemma Orchid Bee – Euglossa dilemma

The Dilemma Orchid Bee was first discovered in Broward County by entomologists working with the USDA fruit fly monitoring program. Like other Orchid Bees, Euglossa dilemma is relatively solitary, but will occasionally share nesting sites. Females build nest cells out of resins (propolis) collected from plant sources. Nests can be located in many different cavities and nest entrances are often sealed off by resin or other plant debris. The mother provides her young larvae with pollen and nectar while they develop. Like other bees, Orchid Bees play an important role in the pollination of plants.



long legged fly
Long-legged Fly – Condylostylus longicornis

Long-legged Fly (Condylostylus longicornis) is possibly the most widespread species of the genus Condylostylus in the order Diptera (Flies). The Long-legged Fly is a beneficial garden visitor. They aren’t your typical bothersome fly, so there is usually no need to swat these charming critters away. Adults are predators of mites, aphids, thrips, other flies, silverfish and small caterpillars to name several.



Sweat Bee – Agapostemon splendens

The sun illuminates the unmistakable shimmering color of the Sweat Bee (Agapostemon splendens) as they land on flowers to collect pollen. These native bees seem to prefer flowers in the Asteraceae (composite) family. In Central Florida, I usually see them in the warmer months of March through November gathering pollen from Gaillardia pulchella (Blanketflower), Bidens alba (Beggarticks) and Helianthus debilis  (Dune Sunflower). Agapostemon splendens are ground nesting bees.  Although they are considered solitary nesters, it is not unusual for females to share and allow other females to enter the nest.  Male and female A. splendens are easy to tell apart.  The male is more slender than females with a black and yellow striped abdomen.  The female is plumper with an all green body.  The female typically has darker wings while males are usually clearer. You can attract Sweat Bees and other native ground nesting bees to your landscape by planting Florida native wildflowers, especially those in the Asteraceae (Composite) family and by retaining areas of bare soil for nesting.



asian lady beetle
Multicolored Asian Beetle – Harmonia axyridis

The Multicolored Asian Beetle is a non-native species and is either considered a pest or a welcome garden visitor as they feed on aphids, thripes, mites, lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) eggs and scale. They were introduced from Asia by humans for biological control and by accident. Lucky for the folks in South Florida, the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle is not such a problem. In North Florida and other parts of the United States where the temperatures get cold during the winter is where they can become an issue when they overwinter in large numbers in house walls or other human dwellings. Read all about the native and non-native Ladybugs of Florida HERE.



hairy maggot blow fly
Hairy Maggot Blow Fly – Chrysomya rufifacies

Meet the Hairy Maggot Blow Fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). They were discovered in the United States around 1980 and is an exotic (not native) diptera (flies) species. C. rufifacies is used in forensics and like other flies, they are pollinators. This species needs rotten meat or decomposing carrion to complete its lifecycle. Thankfully there is not a rotting carcass in our landscape and the Wild Coffee is the attractor for this rather handsome fly. Want to know more about Chrysomya rufifacies, look HERE.



Red-tailed Flesh Fly – Sarcophaga maemorrhoidalis

Here is a Red-tailed Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis). The larvae of the Red-tailed Flesh Fly invade carcasses that are in the early to advanced stages of decomposition and is an important species used in forensics dealing with criminal and legal matters. Red-tailed Flesh Flies resemble the common house fly, but they are larger and more robust.




paper wasp
Northern Paper Wasp – Polistes fuscatus will also feed on honeydew. The black sooty mold shown in this photo grows on the honeydew which is excreted from certain pest insects such as scales, aphids and mealybugs. 

The Northen Paper Wasp (Polistes fuscatus) commonly inhabits woodlands and savannas. They are also common around urban areas where humans inhabit, especially where wood is present that can be used to nesting material. Adult Northern Paper Wasps feed primarily on plant nectar. They will kill caterpillars and other small insects by masticating them to feed their young. The solid portion of the meal is given to older larvae and the liquid is regurgitated and fed to younger larvae.




Meet a Critter: Muticolored Asian Lady Beetle – Harmonia axyridis

Adult Harmonia axyridis on Florida native Wild Lime (Zanthoxylum fagara)
It’s a Ladybird… it’s a Ladybug… it’s a Lady Beetle! These are just a few of the common names used for any one of the 6,000 Coccinellidae that occur throughout the world or the documented 105 or so Coccinellidae species that can be found in Florida. I’ve always called them Ladybugs since childhood and it really makes no difference which common name you use. As usual, common names are useless while there are so many different species of Coccinellidae. Now let’s talk a little bit about Harmonia axyridis, the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle. This is a non-native species and is either considered a pest or a welcome garden visitor as they feed on aphids, thripes, mites, lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) eggs and scale. They were introduced from Asia by humans for biological control and by accident, so if you consider them a Pest, who can you put the blame on? Now they practically cover the entire United States. Lucky for me in South Florida, the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle is not such a problem. In North Florida and other parts of the United States where the temperatures get cold during the winter is where they can become an issue when they overwinter in large numbers. They can overwinter in house walls and other human dwellings. If the dwelling they’ve chosen to overwinter in is warmer than what is required for their dormancy, they might end up on your window dressings, furniture or walls. However, they do not cause structural damage. Instead, they produce a yellow defensive compound that can stain light colored window treatments, walls and furniture. I have personally seen this in the early 2000’s when I lived in Illinois for a brief time. I remember my second floor bedroom being flooded with hundreds of them. Nothing a vacuum cleaner couldn’t handle and I gave them a different common name that I won’t repeat! I also remember mowing the lawn with my shirt off while hundreds flew around and yes, they bite! Again, I consider myself lucky here in South  Florida and consider them natures pest control of aphids and scale, but understand they can be a nuisance having seen both sides of the coin. For information on the Coccinellidae (Ladybugs) of Florida, look here. Fellow wildlife garden blogger, Loret, shows us a comparison of the non-native Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle and our native Cycloneda species in her article, “There are Different Types of Ladybugs?“. 
Harmonia axyridis larvae in Florida native Scorpiontail (Heliotropium angiospermum)

Meet a Critter: Black-winged Dahana – Dahana atripennis

A new beauty to grace our garden on the second day of spring. There is always something new to see in a native wildlife garden. This one was all about our Scorpion Tail (Heliotropium angiospermum). Black-winged Dahana is diurnal (day flying) and the only Dahana genus that occurs in North American according to Larval feed on Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides). 

Erect Pricklypear; Shell Mound Pricklypear – Opuntia stricta


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Opuntia stricta flower

Opuntia stricta (op-UN-shee-uh STRIK-tuh) is one of four native Opuntia species that occur in Florida. Erect Pricklypear grows north to south on the east and west coast and is quite common growing along coastal dunes, coastal grasslands, coastal hammocks and on shell mounds. The height of this species is variable but is typically around 2-4 feet with an equally variable spread of 1-4 feet. Opunta stricta makes an interesting plant in residential landscapes in hot, dry locations where other plants would be impossible to grow. It’s use as a low growing, visually intriguing hedge is worth considering if kept away from areas that are frequently used, but would be ideal to keep intruders away. 


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Opuntia stricta

The large, bright yellow flowers typically bloom around February into July and are very showy, attracting many pollinating insects including native bees. Ants are also attracted to Opuntia and in turn, protect against herbivores that might otherwise damage the plant. After flowering, the jewel-toned fruits will form and they also provide ornamental interest. These fruits are edible and enjoyed by birds and mammals, including humans. The seeds from the fruit are mainly dispersed by mammals and birds and can remain viable for up to a decade. The young pads are edible when the many thorns have been properly removed and may be eaten raw in a salad, alone or cooked in a number of creative ways.


Opuntia stricta fruit

The pads of Opuntia and other Cactaceae are not leaves, but in fact, stems. The pads contain eyes called areolas where the spikes emerge from. The spikes are technically modified leaves and very sharp. Besides the obvious large spikes, they also contain very fine hair-like spikes that can get embedded into your skin despite your best effort to be careful near the plant or while handling the pads or fruits. The areolas will grow roots if removed from the parent plant and can easily be propagated this way and the base of the pad will also root if placed on top of soil or sand. 


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Opuntia stricta eyes (areolas)

Opuntia stricta is an example of a well-behaved plant in its native region, but one that is very invasive in other parts of the world. In 1925, the Cactus Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) was introduced from Argentina to Australia to control Opuntia species that came from North America and South America. The Cactus Moth has since spread to the United States and is now a threat to our native Opuntia species.

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Opuntia stricta herbivore damage in our landscape. I’ll be keeping a close eye out for the invasive Cactus Moth.




Meet a Critter: Oak Treehopper – Platycotis vittata

A lone Oak Treehopper (Platycotis vittata) found on Asimina parviflora (Smallflower Pawpaw) and is most likely just taking a rest away from the nearby Laurel Oaks

This intriguing looking insect is an Oak Treehopper. They are common on oaks (quercus) and usually aren’t cause for concern. Often considered a pest, they typically only show minimal damage by minor stem scaring caused during oviposition. Oak Treehoppers mainly hatch in the spring and reach peak numbers by late March into May. There are a total of five nymphal instars and adults are sociable and often found in groups. Read more on the Oak Treehopper at

Oak Treehopper (Playcotis vittata) nymph found on Asimina parviflora (Smallflower Pawpaw)


Five Common Butterfly Host Plants You Might Already Have

Virginia Pepperweed – Lepidium virginicum

Larval host for Great Southern White (Ascia monuste), Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) and Checkered White (Pontia protodice) butterflies. Read more on Virginia Pepperweed here. Virginia Pepperweed is edible.

Beggarticks – Bidens alba

Larval host for Dainty Sulphur (Nathalis iole) butterflies. Read more about Bidens alba here. Bidens alba is edible.

Common Fanpetals – Sida ulmifolia

Larval host for Common Checkered Skipper (Pyrgus communis) and Tropical Checkered Skipper (Pyrgus oileus) butterflies. Read more about Sida ulmifolia here. See all Sida species in Florida here.

Florida Pellitory – Parietaria floridana

Larval host for Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) butterflies. Read more about Florida Pellitory here. Florida Pellitory is edible.

Gamochaeta spp. – Cudweed; Everlasting

Larval host for American Lady (Vanessa virginiensis) butterflies. Some Gamochaeta species in Florida are not native and some are. The one in the image below is most likely non-native Gamochaeta pensylvanica. See all Gamochaeta species in Florida here.


Is Your Landscape Beautiful Inside and Out?


The spaceship has landed and is equipped with a portal. No wildlife here!
What do you picture when you think of a beautiful residential landscape? Do you see a perfectly manicured lawn that is dotted with shrubs cut into circles and squares? A yard with exotic plants? A yard with native plants? Maybe you picture a wildflower meadow, a coastal scene with Dune Sunflowers, or a beautiful Longleaf Pine forest. If you ask me, the first scenario of lawn grass and shrubs cut into bizarre shapes are best suited for Disneyworld. While this “type” of landscape might seem appealing some, sustainable gardeners know that life does not live in a fertilized lawn or in shrubs that are cropped weekly to maintain their perfect shape. Birds will not take up residence in these manhandled bushes or use them for shelter. Every time I go visit a friend at her condo, I look at the landscaping. Some of the plants are native to Florida while some are not, but they all have one thing in common. They are all cut into strange forms or something else that looks like it came from outer-space. When I leave, I am always greeted by a rather sad Walter’s Viburnum that has been sliced and diced into a giant globe. Mr. Viburnum

Mr. Walter’s Viburnum never had a chance.
will never flower for pollinating insects or support our feathered friends that would otherwise use his twiggy branches for landing.  On the other hand, there are too many landscapes with only exotic plants. Imagine that you have a crush on someone you find very attractive, but after the first dinner date, you are put off by their dull personality. One might say that a lot of exotic plants are one-dimensional in the same way. They look good on the outside, but that’s it. Unfortunately, exotics are the scene in most Florida neighborhoods. Taking a walk through your urban hood might leave you feeling like you are in Africa or Asia without the cost of a plane ticket. Of course, not all non-native exotic plants should get an immediate sandle-kick back to their homeland. Some of them have a place in our gardens, such as homegrown fruits and veggies, herbs or a select few “Florida friendly” plants like those Old Fashioned Pentas.



A real Florida landscape of Slashpine.
Ideally, a well thought out landscape should consist of mostly native plants. This includes trees, shrubs, vines and wildflowers. As more land is clear-cut for development at an astounding rate, more folks are beginning to look at their own landscapes as a sanctuary for wildlife. Native trees, shrubs and wildflowers have coevolved with our birds, insects, mammals and amphibians. It is by nature’s design that native trees and shrubs begin to put on berries right when the birds need them for

Native plants and wildflowers invite life to this landscape

nourishment. Spring wildflowers show up just in time for pollinating insects. Beetles and flies nectar from these wildflowers and become a vital food source for spring songbirds. Plants that are native to Florida are what make our region so unique and give us a sense of belonging. You wouldn’t want to visit Colorado and find exoti

A native wildflower garden
c trees from China. No, you came to see Blue Spruce and Quaking Aspen trees that are representative of that part of the region and the wildlife that uses them.


Luckily, there is a growing demand among Florida gardeners for native plants. People are really beginning to see that Florida native plants are what make a landscape beautiful inside and out. To see what native plants grow in your neck of the w
oods and to find a Florida native plants nursery in your area, visit Florida Association of Native Nurseries HERE. Also, visit Florida Native Plant Society for a list of natives for your area and so much more HERE.


Turkey Tangle Frogfruit (Phyla nodiflora) is a wonderful grass alternative and attracts pollinators like this Gray Hairstreak butterfly.